Maxillofacial injuries managed at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal: a 7 year retrospective study
AbstractIntroduction: Of all the facial injuries, maxillofacial region is one most frequently involved. Themaxillofacial region is most prone to trauma owing to its prominent position in the skull whichgets involved easily in case of trauma. Facial injuries can have long term consequences in terms ofesthetics and function. Few series have been studied in terms of incidence of facial trauma in Nepal.Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all the patients admitted and treated at thesurgery and dental department of the Tribhuvan University teaching hospital with the diagnosis offacial injuries over the period of 8 years (2008 to 2016). The characteristics of these injuries wereanalyzed. The causes of injury were classified as follows: traffic accidents, assaults, animal attacks,falls, sports and related to the disaster. Anatomically, fractures of the mandible were classified intofollowing regions: symphysis, parasymphysis, canine, body, angle, condyle and fractures more thanone site (multiple sites). Midface fractures were classified according to the Le fort classification intoLe fort I, Le Fort II, Le fort III and ZMC.Results: A total of 133 patients with facial fractures were treated between 2008 and 2016 whichwere retrospectively analyzed. The male: female ratio was 2:1 and the largest subgroup of patientswere between 16 and 30 years of age. The most common cause of injury was road traffic accidents(62.4%) involving motorcycles or automobiles. Other common causes included, in descendingorder, falls (5.2%), animal attacks (5.2%) assaults (3.7%) and sports. Isolated mandibular fractureswere most common (50.4%), followed by isolated Zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures(18.8%). The percentage of fractures involving Le fort I was 8.3%, and that of isolated alveolarfractures was 9%.Conclusion: RTAs remains the main cause for maxillofacial injuries where males were predominatelyaffected, condition of the roads, traffic regulations and adverse weathers all contribute to the TRAsin developing countries like Nepal.
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